What is Fiber Optic Communication?

Fiber optic communication is the main transmission method of modern communication networks. In its 20-year development history, it has gone through short-wavelength multimode fiber, long-wavelength multimode fiber, and long-wavelength single-mode fiber. The adoption of fiber optic communication is a major transformation for communication companies. So what is fiber optic communication? What is the principle of fiber optic communication? What are the applications of fiber optic communication?

What is fiber optic communication?

Fiber optic communication, also known as optical fiber communication, is a communication method that uses light as the information carrier and fiber optic as the transmission medium. It first converts electrical signals into optical signals and then transmits the optical signals through fiber optic, which is a type of wired communication. Optics can carry information after modulation.

Fiber optic communication has revolutionized the telecommunications industry since the 1980s and plays a crucial role in the digital age. It has advantages such as high transmission capacity and good security. Fiber optic communication has now become the main wired communication method.

What is the principle of fiber optic communication?

The principle of fiber optic communication is to use light waves as carriers to transmit information, use fiber optics as transmission media, and achieve information transmission, thus achieving the communication goal of the latest communication technology. At the transmitting end, the transmitted information (such as voice) needs to be converted into electrical signals, then modulated onto the laser beam emitted by the laser, so that the intensity of light changes with the amplitude (frequency) of the electrical signal, and is transmitted through the fiber optic via the principle of total internal reflection of light. At the receiving end, the detector converts the light signal into an electrical signal, and the original information is restored after demodulation.

Optical communication utilizes the principle of total internal reflection. When the injection angle of light meets certain conditions, the light can form total internal reflection in the fiber optic, thereby achieving long-distance transmission. The guiding characteristics of fiber optic are based on the total internal reflection of the optical rays on the interface of the core and cladding, which confines the light rays to be transmitted in the core. There are two types of rays in fiber optic, namely meridional rays and skew rays. The meridional rays are located on the meridional plane, while the skew rays do not pass through the fiber optic axis.

Applications of fiber optic communication

The applications of fiber optic communication are very wide, mainly used in city telephone relay lines, where the advantages of fiber optic communication can be fully utilized, gradually replacing cables and widely used. The main applications are in the following six areas:

  • Broadcasting and television field;

  • Military field;

  • Power communication field;

  • Application in telecommunication trunk lines;

  • Application in fiber optic access networks;

  • Application of fiber optic communication derivatives.

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