Basic Knowledge of Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cable definition

An fiber optic cable is mainly composed of optical fibers (fiber optics), plastic protective sleeves, and plastic outer sheaths. It is a type of communication line used for optical signal transmission. The cable core is composed of a certain number of optical fibers arranged in a certain way and is encased in a protective sheath. Some cables also have an outer protective layer.

In other words, it is a cable formed by optical fibers (optical transmission medium) through a certain process.

Types of fiber optic cables

There are many types of fiber optic cables, and there are various classification methods based on different standards:

Classified according to transmission performance, distance, and use:

Classified into local-area fiber optic cables, long-distance fiber optic cables, undersea fiber optic cables, and user fiber optic cables.

Classified according to the type of optical fiber:

Classified into single-mode fiber optic cables and multi-mode fiber optic cables.

Classified according to the method of sheathing optical fibers:

Classified into tight-sheathed fiber optic cables, loose-sheathed fiber optic cables, bundled-tube fiber optic cables, and ribbon fiber optic cables.

Classified according to the number of optical fiber cores:

Classified into single-core, twin-core, four-core, and six-core.

Classified according to the method of strengthening components:

Classified into center-strengthened component fiber optic cables (such as layer-twisted fiber optic cables and skeleton-type fiber optic cables), dispersed-strengthened component fiber optic cables (such as bundled-tube fiber optic cables strengthened on both sides and flat fiber optic cables), protective layer-strengthened component fiber optic cables (such as bundled-tube steel wire armored fiber optic cables), and PE wire-strengthened composite outer sheath fiber optic cables with a certain number of thin steel wires.

Classified according to the laying method:

Classified into pipeline fiber optic cables, direct-buried fiber optic cables, overhead fiber optic cables, and undersea fiber optic cables.

Classified according to the properties of the sheath material:

Classified into polyethylene sheath ordinary fiber optic cables, polyvinyl chloride sheath flame-retardant fiber optic cables, and nylon ant-proof and rat-proof fiber optic cables.

Classified according to the transmission conductor and medium conditions:

Classified into non-metallic fiber optic cables, ordinary fiber optic cables, and optoelectronic composite cables.

Classified according to the structure:

Classified into flat-structured fiber optic cables, twisted-structured fiber optic cables, skeleton-type fiber optic cables, armored structural fiber optic cables (including single- and double-layer armored), and so on.

Fiber optic cables used for communication can be classified as follows:

  • Indoor/outdoor fiber optic cables, used for outdoor direct burial, pipelines, troughs, tunnels, overhead, and underwater laying of fiber optic cables.

  • Flexible fiber optic cables, movable fiber optic cables with excellent bending performance.

  • Indoor fiber optic cables, suitable for indoor laying of fiber optic cables.

  • Equipment indoor fiber optic cables, used for equipment indoor laying of fiber optic cables.

  • Undersea fiber optic cables, used for laying fiber optic cables across oceans.

  • Special fiber optic cables, fiber optic cables used for special purposes other than those mentioned above.

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